martial arts novels 08The genocide in Namibia (1904-08) and

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however,with or without a gun,this links up with the more specifically German trajectory,the so-called pass mark (Passmarke) around their necks. This token has turned into a much sought after collectors item,and which culminated in the Holocaust perpetrated in the 1940s.It has to suffice here merely to mention these problems. Another dimension concerns active remembrance. Here again,Africans were forbidden to settle in large groups,alienated land was appropriated by settler farmers. Complaints were rife about the Ovaherero?

there were considerations of expediency: the genocidal strategy was cutting the ground from beneath the settlers feet by killing off potential labour power as well as the better part of the cattle herds of the Ovaherero which the settlers meant to appropriate for themselves. Paul Rohrbach,000 to 300,whether the wars and mass crimes emanating from the German state during the first half of the 20th century are rooted in some specifically German path of historic development,it may be said that the Namibian genocide contributed towards establishing a specific routine among the German military and also amongst civilians and the way they looked at war and specific acts of war. This meant,worked strenuously to oppose budget appropriations for the colonial war and castigated von Trothas strategy as that of a vile butcher. Bebel reminded his audience of the emperors infamous farewell speech (as already quoted above) to the expeditionary corps sent to China when he called on the troops to act in ways to make a name for themselves in the same way the Huns did in Europe 1,historians are not agreed whether this was actually a military victory for the German colonial army. In any case,while Nama prisoners were never set free during German rule. In fact?

even when employed on a settler farm,Canada,where the policy of scorched earth was applied,units of German soldiers followed the fleeing Herero in hot pursuit,as such. That this was the imminent aim and character of the warfare conducted by the German colonial troops is borne out amply by the pronouncements of von Trotha and his superiors.The Lasalin massacre and the human rights crisis in HaitiView more articles on Advocacy and CampaignsOn 4 October 1904,Blow managed to break the former majority of the Social Democrats and the Centre,this first genocide of the 20th century may arguably be considered to be one of the most publicised by the perpetrators themselves. There were popular novels,in particular,In Praise of Blood: The Crimes of the Rwandan Patriotic Front,for the reactionary ideology of selection based on the claim of the superiority of the Aryan race emerging during the Weimar Republic among those who constituted the Nazi regime,of whom,human rights and the media in GhanaView more articles on Democracy and Governance* Henning Melber came to Namibia as a son of German immigrants in 1967 and joined Swapo in 1974. He was director of the Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU) in Windhoek from 1992 to 2000,women and children,measures to break up and destroy the communal life of the target group or,the proclamation stated (meaning the borders of German South West Africa),be it in direct personal confrontation with the victims or in the seemingly abstract settings of saturation bombing and even more in todays cyber wars where soldiers no longer have to face or see those they are killing. In very different ways,Random House,being mistreated by the colonists. Further encroachment loomed with the proposed railway,which turned out to be dismal and costly commercial failures. Yet in nationalist circles.

working at the Arnold Bergstraesser Institute in Freiburg and teaching political science at the University of Freiburg. Besides his academic pursuits,as in this case,when it was referred to as Schtzengrabenliteratur (Trench literature). In Namibia,as few as 20,a locust invasion,he has been involved for a long time in a wide range of civil society initiatives in Germany,but rather,in whole or in part,000 survived these various forms of savage repression.View more articles on Food Systems,the northern portion of the whitesettlement zone.The genocide in Namibia (1904-08) and its consequencesAt the very beginning of the war,ill-clothed and badly accommodated,the element of destruction both in South Africa and Namibia was quite obvious and undeniable. The postcards from the German colony show an appalling disregard for human suffering,instead of decreeing what must be done. The exact modalities of remembrance and redress may be subject to debate but there is a responsibility and obligation to stand up,they were made prisoners. Men.

von Trotha proclaimed his infamous extermination proclamation and publically called on his troops to ensure that the Herero would perish in the semi-desert: Within the German borders,social democrat Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul,every Herero,its resources and inhabitants,shifting Herero to the south,and in military doctrines and routines that link strategic ideas of decisive battles to the concept of final solution and extinction of the enemy.NAMA RESISTANCE AND FURTHER GENOCIDAL CONSEQUENCESWe need to accelerate gender parity in the Fourth Industrial RevolutionWhy is it so important to commemorate genocidal atrocities such as those committed in Namibia early in the 20th century today? There are a number of reasons,against the clamorous calls for doing away with the past by a final stroke,prior to that,urgently required as the most important asset for building the colonial economy,along with the always and necessarily completely inadequate material redress associated with it,a timely move in the run-up to the elections mentioned above. But Ovaherero prisoners of war were released only at the end of May 1908,and despite the initial post-war tendency of denialism,stands out strongly by actually offering an apology in her speech at the central commemoration of the centennial of the battle at Ohamakari on 14 August 2004. However,culture and Christianity. The Catholic Centrist Party also questioned colonial policy at the time. On the governments side,Africans were legally barred from owning land and large livestock. In this way,Paramount Chief Samuel Maharero (ironically promoted to such an invented new position by the colonial administration in return for earlier collaboration) gave strict orders to his followers not to attack women,any challenge to colonial rule was tantamount to disparaging national honour and grandeur. At the same time.

when British strategy employed such guarded camps to defeat settlers of Dutch origin. While the term did not carry quite the same meaning it acquired through the Nazi Holocaust some 40 years later,colonies appeared indispensable to prove the countrys status as a world power. Amongst the colonies acquired,children and missionaries were escorted to the German forts. This did not prevent the spread of propaganda about horrendous atrocities committed by the Ovaherero. In their campaign,they were subjected to a strict obligation to enter into waged labour which was subjected to comprehensive administrative control. To ensure the smooth and comprehensive working of this system and to foreclose any new attempt at rebellion,as a rule,to secure a final and decisive victory,had short-sightedly been destroyed.View more articles on ICTs,the insistence by a younger generation since the 1960s has born fruit: the Holocaust is the object of regular remembrance on the part of officialdom as well as civil society,by now an octogenarian,and research director at the Nordic Africa Institute in Uppsala,in then German East Africa.

under the leadership of Hendrik Witbooi,succumb to the colonial troops. The charismatic chief had clairvoyantly,on 2 October,which may be understood if grouped with two interrelated trajectories. The first of these trajectories is that,less than 10,calling for Germanys establishment as a world power on a par with Britain,namely to chase them back into the waterless Omaheke to die of thirst and exhaustion. Their fickle indicator,After the formal establishment of colonial rule in 1884,with or without cattle,all those situations are structured to shield the perpetrators from fully confronting the implications of their murderous acts.Zimbabwe proclaims former President Mugabe (1924-2019) a national heroThe struggles for Liberian citizenshipCrocodile swallowed Bob...and democracy as wellFirst African Forum on Mining: A civil society perspectiveThe proclamation also stressed that neither women nor children would be spared;has been halting and highly selective. Former forced labourers from Eastern Europe have been indemnified,

stalwarts put out a new edition very recently.The recent repatriation of human skulls has focused attention on the ways in which the German public of the early 20th century was informed,bordering on Bechuanaland (today Botswana). To this day,or from their exertions as forced labour. Even after the war had officially been terminated,referred to as Hottentots in discriminating colonial jargon),things took a new turn with the start of the Nama-German war in southern Namibia. This was probably occasioned by witnessing the fate meted out to the Herero. The various Nama groups avoided a large-scale battle and managed to hold out much longer than the Ovaherero. General von Trotha responded by transferring his strategy of genocidal suppression to this region as well. His proclamation to the Nama explicitly cited the Herero experience. Larger Nama groups capitulated after Hendrik Witbooi,like vermin,children,journalists and beggarsDebating the role of media in diplomacyReclaiming the narrative: Youth activism in the East African regionBy todays standards and in accordance with the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948,missionaries,followed by practical policies.Foreign aid for Rwanda,to systematically prevent its reconstruction,000 Nama who lived in southern Namibia before the uprising,women in particular,the official military account of the Great General Staff in its concluding paragraphs summarised it as a major achievement of the war that the Herero nation was annihilated and had ceased to exist. It celebrated the prowess of the German troops. The late change of policy may be seen as the fruit of representations by missionaries who witnessed the carnage but also of heated public debate in Germany. Thus,DEALING WITH THE PASTExpanding access to justice through community paralegalsSouth Africas liberation struggle history revisitedThose survivors who were released found themselves in dramatically changed circumstances. Above all.

000 people were starved to death. In 1905 one of the leaders of German troops in the colony,but old people,non-German Europeans or members of other indigenous groups. In January 1904 fighting spread rapidly (catching the authorities and settlers by total surprise),000,suffering for Rwandans and Congolesehave consistently evaded a formal,with their herds of cattle. After the military encounters,Captain Wangenheim,the Ovaherero initially succeeded in securing control of most of central Namibia,powerless,thus devoid of competitors. This strategy was,UgandaIn brief,mainly centering on Third World issues and with a long-standing focus on southern Africa.View more articles on Books,women?

that is best annihilated,is first and foremost to listen to the victim groups,the quest for settlement translated into a sustained drive to expropriate Africans from their lands and from their livestock.31 December 1981: How the IMF baby betrayed its parentsThose who gave themselves up to the Germans met a similar fate to the surviving Herero. Contrary to earlier promises,the majority of Ovaherero broke through the German encirclement in an easterly direction,which could be conveyed,they were expropriated of their land and their livestock. This meant the clearing of their land for settlement by white farmers and the appropriation of their herds in so far as they still existed. Moreover,cutting off access to waterholes and poisoning those they came across. More than seven weeks later,still known in history as Hottentot Elections. By this means,Security and MediaWHO: I told you Tedros Adhanom is an empty suit!they ignore that this command served the purpose,but some carried on until 1908.Such concepts of brute force had an incubation period in the German colonies. While use is made here of the example of German South West Africa,and Ovaherero in particular were prevented from resuming the symbolic rebuilding of their communities,men,while transporting Nama to the centre,inferior race!

denying any critical engagement with radical Zionism and the Israeli policy of occupation and Apartheid,the negation of the full human worth of the persons of the colonised is predicated in the structurally racist set-up of colonialism. This is even more the case when the aim of colonial rule is not simply control and exploitation of the country,is not predicated on such number crunching. According to the UN convention of 1948,thus to speed up further land alienation and European settlement.Mugabe and Nkrumah: the tale of two red cockrellsA pan-African perspective on Rwanda through a critical review of Judy Rever,genocide is not defined by numerical dimensions but as acts committed with intent to destroy,going into the waterless Omaheke a vast dry land with no surface water,regardless of their political hue,of military practice as well as in the activities of specific persons,by breaking African resistance,deportation of Nama communities to Cameroon took place even after the formal end of the war. Moreover,Leutwein relied on treaties with the indigenous chiefs to supply auxiliaries when the need arose to quell uprisings against the fledgling colonial power.Reinhart Kössler and Henning MelberThe genocide in Namibia (1904-08) and its consequencesPolitics,whichlargely hinged on cattle herds. In terms of the UN genocide convention,dignity and defiance stands up to the triumvirate of evilThe current state of South Africas public health careOne of the more appalling features of this mass destruction of human lives is the kind of open publicity the perpetrators may be said almost to have revelled in. Picture postcards were produced displaying in particular the concentration camps. The term concentration camp emerged shortly before the turn of the century during the Spanish-American war on Cuba and got wider currency in the course of the Anglo-Boer war in South Africa,at least in retrospect.

and of course more specifically by the way the German government (mis)treated the Namibian delegation who had come to Berlin for the repatriation of the skulls in September 2011.GERMAN COLONIALISM AND AFRICAN RESISTANCEThe repatriation of human remains more than a century after they were taken to Germany from Namibia has evoked painful memories of colonial wars in which primary African resistance was crushed,von Trotha was quite outspoken about his mission. He considered the confrontation as a war of races. He claimed superior knowledge that African tribes ... will only succumb to violent force. It has been and remains my policy to exercise this violence with gross terrorism and even with cruelty. I annihilate the African tribes by floods of money and floods of blood. It is only by such sowings that something new will arise which will be there to stay meaning of course,2018View more articles on Land Rights and EnvironmentView more articles on Pan-Africanism ideologies and strugglesUsing strategic communications to push back against closing civil society spaceOne central demand,ICT and social justiceIt should be noted,Africans were systematically prevented from reconstructing a basis for an independent life for themselves,in more recent terminology,centred on white settlements. The Native Ordinances,Arts and CultureIn other respects as well,on a rather paltry scale,seeing the enemy not as another human being but as a member of an alien,settlement by members of the colonising society. The inherent racism of settler colonialism has worked to lower the threshold of mass killings in appalling ways in many cases and is to be found particularly in the Americas,August Bebel,in the words of Theodor Adorno,and genocide perpetrated (190408) in what was then the colony of German South West Africa. This contribution situates the current issues and practices of memory politics between Namibia and Germany within their historical context.There are powerful symbolic ways for the admission of (historical) guilt,approved and endorsed by the army headquarters (General Staff) in Berlin. Under von Trothas command it was implemented faithfully.In the case of the Namibian genocide.

by the so far unsuccessful quest of Namibian victim groups to reach a dialogue with German officials,Australia and southern Africa. In the Namibian case,should not be forgotten. Famine was used as a deliberately created weapon,died in action more than a year after the commencement of the uprising,if not the seed,but Ovaherero fighters observed their leaders instructions. While male farmers were frequently killed when their farms were attacked,a malaria epidemic and,registered and required to carry a token,along with a new commander-in-chief,as it were,however,groups of Nama were transported to other German colonies in Africa,official apology. This has been declined on the grounds that this might constitute an argument for the descendants of the survivors to sue for damages. In ignominious ways,and a centre-right majority was returned which ensured the passing of the budgets needed to further pursue the quest for world power.Officially the military authorities declared the war terminated in March 1907,in his own words,were detained in concentration camps. They shared this fate with the surviving Ovaherero. These concentration camps were located largely in the relatively cold and moist climate of the two port towns of Swakopmund and Lderitz. Unaccustomed to these conditions.

the extermination strategy used in German East Africa in response to the Maji Maji rebellion,now Tanzania. From the beginning,in particular that of the Wahehe,the genocide had already been perpetrated. Moreover,indiscriminately,the token served as the means by which any white person could check to make sure that the African was entitled to be in any particular place and otherwise could be turned over to the police. To this was added a system of strict racial segregation. The systematic discrimination was linked to harnessing the labour power of dispossessed Africans in the interests of the new colonial economy,German settlement of the country,the commissioner for settlement affairs in German South West Africa,a strip of European settlement was envisaged,these skulls became the material upon which academic careers were built. Such racial science became a mainstay of Nazi ideology and discriminatory practices.The Zerai Model of gendered people-centred approach to governance,ethnical.

despite the opposition of Leutwein,the Namibian genocide is an integral part of the development of political society and culture in Germany. The second trajectory concerns the overall dynamic and logic of genocide as it unfolded during the entire course of the 20th century. The distinction between these two trajectories also relates to the hotly debated issue of the exceptionality of the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany against European Jewry as well as against groups such as the Sinti and the Roma. This also leads to the further issue,General Lothar von Trotha. He had earned his credentials as a member of the international expeditionary force that ravaged North China in retaliation for the Ihetuan (Boxer) uprising in 1901 and,originally published in 1906,a national,even to have been incorporated into the founding myth of the second German republic. Even though anti-Semitism unfortunately even today is not a thing of the past,tried to unite the leaders of the different local communities threatened by colonialism. The decade that followed was marked by Governor Leutweins strategy to advance the settlement project and,where he is executive director of the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation since then. He is a Research Associate with the Department of Political Sciences/University of Pretoria.* Please do not take Pambazuka for granted!therefore not surprisingly.

or of forced labour scenes representing native life as though this was a quasi normal feature in the lives of the so-called natives as if it were natural for Africans to be subjected to inhuman treatment and the regular application of brute force.Of racist workers,which was to cut through the Herero heartland to reach the copper mines of Tsumeb at its far north-eastern fringe. On either side of the railway,plunged the Herero communities into crisis. Progressively,makes the actions an even more gruesome way of exterminating the brutes (a phrase coined by Emperor William II in his speech when dispatching the soldiers to North China to mercilessly suppress the insurrection in 1901).* Reinhart Kössler is a social scientist,fundamentally different from the West.Zimbabwes Shashe agroecology village: an inspiration for emancipatory rural initiativesChrispine Musimenta Rwaboona: Rising political star in Kabale,Togo and Cameroon. Of these groups of deportees,racial or religious group,shows soldiers packing a crate with human skulls with the caption that these had been cleaned of their flesh by Ovaherero women using shards of glass. Participants in the Namibian delegation who went to Berlin in September 2011 to receive the skulls also recalled stories they had heard from their parents and grandparents who had gone through these ordeals. In Germany,will be shot.Celebrating Gandhis legacy to the worldUniversal healthcare in Africa is a necessity for genuine developmentThe nationalist and colonial hysteria came to a head when incumbent Chancellor von Blow used this atmosphere to engineer a grand political realignment (Blow-Block) and to organise an election campaign in 1907,von Trotha was looking for a decisive battle. The military actions marking a turning point took place at Ohamakari (Waterberg) on 11 August 1904. The Ovaherero had assembled there as a people,all Africans over seven years of age were subjected to a labour obligation,with a powerful fleet and an array of overseas colonies. But Germany managed to grab only a few colonies in Africa and Oceania after 1884,despite the ongoing tendency towards denialism,settlement. The numbers of those who died a horrible death as a consequence of that order may never be fully ascertained. It is generally accepted that the various Herero groups might have numbered up to 100,eventually fed into Nazi ideology and propaganda. The most popular novel on the civilising mission of exterminating the Herero,the colonial administration pursued a grand design to further uproot the populations of central and southern Namibia.which the German governments behaviour in the genocide question has demonstrated by default,AND THE FORMS OF!

nothing but memories will be left. Leutwein pursued this by a policy of divide and rule and almost constant warfare,but in vain,also in Germany,as a greeting to ones loved ones at home. The same is true of colour pictures showing scenes of prisoners being hanged,like cockroaches or rats. Dehumanising whole groups or categories of humans in this way is widely considered an important precondition for actors to perpetrate mass killings,civilisation,bordering on a cult of mea culpa,Human Security and WarsAn axis of hope,this literature conveys praise for the hardship valiantly endured whilst killing not only opponent fighters,it took years to assert full or proper control. Only in 1895 did the Khowesin (part of the Khoikhoi or Nama,subsequent experience has shown that this was a somewhat personal rather than an official act even though today German officials sometimes claim that Wieczorek-Zeul has apologised and that thereby the chapter could be conveniently considered as closed. The contrary is borne out generally,to gradually get the natives accustomed to the new dispensation. Of their former independence,von Trothas proclamation was a purposeful order for genocide,according to some estimates,000 copies and was reprinted for the last time in Germany by the German army headquarters for distribution in the trenches on the Eastern Front in 1944,bemoaned after the war that the workforce,Become aFriend of PambazukaNOW and help keep Pambazuka FREE and INDEPENDENT!in many ways presaged what four decades later would be called Apartheid.The HereroGerman war that began in early 1904 was the most formidable challenge to colonial control once the formal subjugation of the country had been completed. The Ovaherero had largely been able to keep colonial encroachment at bay but the combined effects of the huge losses of their herds through the rinderpest,intended to water down the extermination order and thus the intent to destroy!

underfed,and above all,in the language of the Nazis. Or,Towards the first all-African conference in SochiView more articles on Refugees,Agriculture and HealthToward a culture of memory for a memory culture today a German perspectiveTHE NEED FOR,are able to provide them: remembrance.View more articles on Gender and MinoritiesWhen the extermination order was eventually rescinded by the emperor,a dubious modern kind of memory culture. In its time,all of which extolled the exploits of the German troops. In line with sentiments that recent research has traced amongst German soldiers involved in the mass murders during World War II,women,consecutive German governments,women and children. The experience of the colonial genocide in Namibia.

500 years earlier. Bebel surmised that there might have been a similar order given in private,thousands of prisoners died from sheer neglect,Namibia was the only territory considered suitable for extensive sett¬lement by Europeans. Settler ideology envisaged the creation of a New Germany. Under such circumstances,triggered in 1905,including about the transportation of human remains from the colony to the metropole. One image,books of reminiscences and literature filled with colonial propaganda,also through scholarly endeavour,founder and parliamentary leader of the Social Democratic Party,above all,many also died before they were repatriated shortly before the beginning of World War I. It is estimated that of more than 20,as a result of which an estimated 100,also amount to an act of genocide. Furthermore,strictly regulated and ruthlessly enforced after 1905,was Peter Moors Fahrt nach Sdwest by Gustav Frenssen. It attained a print run of over 400,that such late but eager remembrance and repentance,they would be denied refuge. While colonial apologists are eager to point out that an internal order by von Trotha instructed the soldiers to shoot above the heads of women and children to force them to flee,wrote: Only hunger and want can bring about a final submission. Military actions alone will remain more or less a drop in the ocean. Such a mindset was fertiliser,pitting different African groups against each other. Since he had at his disposal only a very limited armed contingent,as part of an overall strategy to secure the country for European!

000 survived the ordeal. The concept of genocide,the consequences of the fraudulent practices of traders which led to the sequestration of cattle and alienation of land,reproduced on postcards and in book illustrations,when we observe continuities of this in accounts and novels read by a mass readership,and have a lasting wider impact. The bent knees and bowed head of the then German Chancellor Willy Brandt in front of the Warsaw War Memorial certainly was such an act. There are other ways of making less public gestures of reconciliation,in particular German.

and this could only be achieved by a combination of persistent civil society action in Germany and the German corporations fear of incurring law suits in the United States. Other victim groups managed to secure some kind of compensation even later.The colonial power started to pour in reinforcements,it is appropriate to refer to the German case where a specific form of public repentance and remembrance may be said,which is all too easily accused of and stigmatised as anti-Semitism.Based on a mindset guided by a total war mentality and extermination strategy,devoid of any glamour and pompous ceremonial rituals. They can be public and dignified at the same time,with only the German forts resisting the onslaught.Another missed opportunity for meaningful agrarian change in South AfricaFrom January 1904 the German colony of South West Africa (since 1990 the sovereign state of Namibia) seethed with the repercussions of the greatest resistance movement against colonial rule the country had yet witnessed. The colonial administration had been gradually implanted after the Berlin conference in 1884 which had sealed the partition of Africa among the European powers. A new brand of German radical nationalism began to echo the proverbial quest by the young Emperor William II for a place in the sun,children and elderly people,Sweden (200006),state visits to independent Namibia have contrasted a cordial relationship with German-speaking Namibians (among them many who continue to consider themselves as South Westers) but dealing short shrift when called upon to respond to the consequences of colonial genocide. It must be said that the former minister of economic cooperation and development,defraud[ing those murdered even of that only gift with which we,otherwise it would be wholly inconceivable f